How to setup the partitions are a key point in Linux installation process.
There are many school regarding that:
- More partitions will bring more control and avoid memory leaks to spread out
- Less partitions are easier to manage
In all cases
In all cases, you need at least 2 partitions:
- 1 data partition called root (/)
- 1 temporary partition called "swap". This is the temporary data of the system.
The swap size depends on your RAM:
- Up to 4 Go RAM: double your RAM value
- 8 to 16 Go RAM: put the same amount as your RAM
- more than 16 Go RAM: that's hard to evaluate. 16 Go of swap is already a lot! That should be enough in all cases.
For a desktop installation you can use the default partitionning table. This is generally good enough.
Some developers - like me - are used to put "/opt" in a dedicated space.
This is my partition table:
|File System||Mount point||Size||Type||Flags|
Unlike a workstation, it's quite important to setup some partitions on a server. This will avoid to have to many logs or temp files - for instance. Then you'll have to monitor regulary the matching mount points to check the available space.
This is how I setup my servers:
|File System||Mount point||Size||Type|
How to know the current hardware and partitions?
You can always have a list of available hardware and partitions by checking-out /dev.
You'll see some output.
>> Hardware = letter
>> Partition = number
As an alternative, you can run the fdisk command:
sudo fdisk -l
Then you'll see more details like:
Disk /dev/sda: 128.0 GB, 128035676160 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 15566 cylinders, total 250069680 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x000ea115 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 * 2048 233390079 116694016 83 Linux /dev/sda2 233392126 250068991 8338433 5 Extended /dev/sda5 233392128 250068991 8338432 82 Linux swap / Solaris Disk /dev/sdb: 4043 MB, 4043309056 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 491 cylinders, total 7897088 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00845e69 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sdb1 * 2048 7897087 3947520 c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
How to know the current mount points
On *Ubuntu Desktop all the devices are automatically mounted. This is not the case on the servers!
To check the list of current mount points: